What your organisation needs to report for thermal energy consumption in the M&R system.

What should be reported

For M&R, thermal energy refers to all solid, liquid and gaseous fuels used for non-transport purposes. This includes fossil and renewable fuels used in:

  • Boilers
  • Space and process heating systems
  • Catering
  • Fuel-based electricity generators (onsite)
  • Combined heat and power (CHP)
  • All plant, equipment and other non-road mobile vehicles

It also includes heat imported from district heating schemes and exported by the public body to district heating schemes. Don't include fuel your organisation supplies for consumption by other organisations.

Thermal energy types

Your organisation will likely report at least one of the thermal energy type listed below.

Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring fossil fuel that is composed mainly of methane. It is piped through the national gas transmission and distribution network directly to end users.

Heating oil

There are three broad categories of heating oil used in the public sector: kerosene, gasoil, and light, medium & heavy fuel oils. The vast majority of heating oil used by public bodies is either kerosene or gasoil.

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

LPG is manufactured in oil refining, crude oil stabilisation and natural gas processing plants. It consists of propane and/or butane gases. It is typically used in boilers for space and water heating, and for cooking.


BioLPG is propane manufactured from renewable feedstocks.  It is a renewable form of LPG that can be used for heat and transport.

Solid fuels

Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burned to release energy (e.g. coal, peat, wood pellets).

Solid fuel - wood chips

Wood chips are a type of solid fuel. They are available in several different specifications. The key parameter in specifying wood chip supplies is the moisture content: the higher the moisture content, the less energy content per unit weight.

District heating

District heating refers to systems for distributing heat to multiple users through insulated pipes as hot water. The water is passed through heat exchangers to provide hot water and space heating in buildings.

Combined heat and power (CHP)

CHP uses a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and heat at the same time. For M&R, all of the fossil or renewable fuel consumed by the CHP unit is reportable.

Solar thermal systems

Solar thermal technology converts the sun's energy into useful heat energy.

Further information