Energy Use Overview
See an overview of on energy use in Ireland broken down by fuel, sector and mode.
Annual energy flow
Oil,TPER,6359 Nat. Gas,TPER,4384 Coal,TPER,914 Peat,TPER,265 Non-Renewable Wastes,TPER,143 Wind,TPER,841 Hydo,TPER,64 Biomass & Other Renewables,TPER,888 TPER,Transformation losses,2427 TPER,TFC,11481 Transformation losses,Peat,10 Transformation losses,Natural Gas Own Use/Loss,55 Transformation losses,Oil Refining,100 Transformation losses,Electricity Transformation & Distribution Losses,2262 TFC,Electricity Imports (net),137 TFC,Agriculture & Fisheries,251 TFC,Commercial/Public,1794 TFC,Industry,2207 TFC,Residential,3073 TFC,Transport,4155
This graph shows the energy balance for Ireland.
On the left are the primary energy inputs to the Irish energy system. Primary energy includes the raw fuels that are used for transformation processes such as electricity generation and oil refining. The sum of all primary energy is the Total Primary Energy Requirement (TPER).
On the right are the sources of demand for final energy. Final energy includes the energy used directly in the different sectors such as transport, residential and industry. Final energy does not include energy lost during transformation processes such as electricity generation. The sum of all final energy used in all sectors is known as Total Final Consumption (TFC).
Also on the right is the energy that is lost during transformation processes such as electricity generation and oil refining. The electricity system has become much more efficient since 2000 but is still only just over 50% efficient. This means that almost half of all the energy used to generate electricity is lost before it gets to the final customer.
Primary energy by fuel
Primary energy by fuel (Mtoe),Oil,Gas,Renewables,Coal,Peat,Wastes Non-Renewable,Electricity Imports 2005,9.13,3.5,0.37,1.88,0.79,0,0.18 2006,8.96,3.97,0.43,1.63,0.76,0,0.15 2007,8.98,4.26,0.49,1.6,0.75,0,0.11 2008,8.93,4.52,0.59,1.41,0.87,0,0.04 2009,7.74,4.3,0.68,1.14,0.86,0.01,0.07 2010,7.29,4.71,0.68,1.23,0.76,0.01,0.04 2011,6.79,4.15,0.83,1.22,0.72,0.01,0.04 2012,6.23,4.04,0.82,1.49,0.79,0.05,0.04 2013,6.28,3.86,0.89,1.31,0.74,0.06,0.19 2014,6.24,3.73,1,1.25,0.78,0.07,0.18 2015,6.65,3.77,1.14,1.47,0.77,0.07,0.06 2016,6.95,4.25,1.14,1.45,0.73,0.07,0 2017,6.87,4.32,1.34,1.15,0.69,0.11,0 2018,7.17,4.48,1.48,0.79,0.69,0.15,0 2019,7.19,4.57,1.65,0.39,0.63,0.15,0.06 2020,6.01,4.56,1.79,0.45,0.42,0.15,0 2021,6.36,4.38,1.65,0.91,0.27,0.14,0.14
Primary energy by fuel 2021 (%),2021 Oil,45.9 Gas,31.6 Renewables,11.9 Coal,6.6 Peat,1.9 Wastes Non-Renewable,1 Electricity Imports,1
Total primary energy requirement peaked 2008 before the economic downturn and reached a minimum in 2014 before growing to a relatively stable level from 2016 to 2019. A significant contraction followed in 2020 due to the impacts of the COVID pandemic; this contraction was mostly confined to oil products, caused by a downturn in transport demand.
In absolute terms, Ireland’s current total primary energy requirement is comparable that from 20 and 10 years ago, despite intervening periods of significant growth and decline. Nevertheless, the mix of fuels and energy types in primary energy has evolved significantly during this time. The broad trend has been the growth of renewables and natural gas displacing oil, coal and peat. Despite the meaningful development of renewables, fossil fuels still dominate Ireland’s primary energy supply.
Final energy by sector
Final energy by sector (Mtoe),Transport,Residential,Industry,Services,Agriculture & Fisheries 2005,5.08,3.3,2.49,1.36,0.38 2006,5.44,3.32,2.39,1.43,0.36 2007,5.72,3.27,2.35,1.45,0.34 2008,5.45,3.58,2.28,1.53,0.36 2009,4.86,3.48,1.92,1.4,0.31 2010,4.6,3.64,1.94,1.41,0.29 2011,4.43,3.19,1.79,1.4,0.28 2012,4.18,3.04,1.83,1.41,0.27 2013,4.35,2.96,1.89,1.47,0.25 2014,4.52,2.68,2.05,1.4,0.23 2015,4.79,2.84,2.04,1.52,0.22 2016,4.97,2.95,2.12,1.54,0.23 2017,5.07,2.86,2.2,1.53,0.24 2018,5.19,3.05,2.26,1.69,0.25 2019,5.23,2.98,2.26,1.72,0.25 2020,3.88,3.2,2.17,1.74,0.25 2021,4.16,3.07,2.21,1.79,0.25
Final energy by fuel 2021 (%),2021 Transport,36.2 Residential,26.8 Industry,19.2 Services,15.6 Agriculture & Fisheries,2.2
The broad reduction in final energy use across all sectors from 2008 to 2012 is attributed to the international economic downturn, with the industry, transport and services sectors returning to growth after 2012, and growth in the residential sector delayed until 2014.
The reduction in 2020 final energy use was due to the COVID-19 restrictions and was almost entirely limited to the transport sector. Prior to 2020, final energy demand for transport had risen every year since 2012. Transports remains the sector with greatest final energy use followed in order by the residential sector, industry and services.
Final energy by mode
Final energy by mode (Mtoe),Transport,Heat,Electricity 2005,5.08,5.43,2.09 2006,5.43,5.29,2.23 2007,5.71,5.2,2.22 2008,5.44,5.45,2.29 2009,4.86,4.94,2.17 2010,4.6,5.1,2.18 2011,4.42,4.52,2.14 2012,4.17,4.42,2.14 2013,4.34,4.43,2.14 2014,4.52,4.23,2.13 2015,4.78,4.41,2.22 2016,4.96,4.57,2.27 2017,5.06,4.54,2.29 2018,5.19,4.85,2.4 2019,5.23,4.76,2.44 2020,3.87,4.91,2.46 2021,4.15,4.79,2.54
Final energy by mode 2021 (%),2021 Transport,36.1 Heat,41.8 Electricity,22.1
It is useful to split energy supply or use into the three modes of electricity, transport, and heat. These represent distinct energy services and markets, and also map onto national and European renewable energy targets. To avoid double-counting across modes, any heat and transport energy provided by electricity (e.g. electric heaters and electric vehicles) is counted in the electricity mode only, not the heat or transport modes. This ensures that summing across the three modes gives a consistent total energy use.
The transport and heat modes historically account for approximately 40% of final energy use each, with the electricity mode accounting for the remaining 20%. The electricity mode has increased steadily over the period. The heat mode shows the greatest year-to-year fluctuations, due to its sensitivity to weather effects. Final energy use in transport decreased during the 2008-2012 recession and again during the COVID-19 restrictions in 2020 and 2021; outside of these events, final energy use in the transport mode has increased each year.