SEAI's annual publication presents the latest official statistics on energy use in Ireland. View our insights and download the full 2023 report.

Latest energy trends in Ireland

Our annual publication looks at trends in national energy use and at the underlying driving forces, such as the economy and weather, and more recently the impacts of high energy prices. It also examines greenhouse gas emissions from energy use, energy security, cost competitiveness, and our progress towards EU renewable energy targets.

The data provided in this report is a key strand in the evidence base that SEAI provides to support the transition to a carbon neutral society.

  • -1.7%

    Energy-related CO2 down
  • +19.9%

    Transport demand up
  • 13.1%

    Renewable energy share

2022 had the lowest energy-related emissions of any year in the last quarter century, except 2020 with its particularly strong COVID-impacts. Energy emissions in 2022 were 7.2% lower than 2018-levels, which is an important comparator, because it is the baseline year for the setting of Ireland’s carbon budgets, and their sectoral emission ceilings. However, despite electricity, transport, and heat emissions in 2022 all being lower than in 2018, the pace of reduction in energy-related emissions is not currently sufficient to our meet national climate obligations.

When taken together, SEAI’s Energy in Ireland and National Energy Projection reports show that early corrective action is crucial. Unless GHG emissions are reduced sharply between now and the end of 2025, it is highly unlikely that Ireland will remain within its carbon budgets out to 2030. In the context of EU and national climate and energy obligations, we need immediate and significant scaling of activity now, if we are to avoid significant compliance costs later. 
William Walsh, SEAI CEO

Ireland's energy balance 2022

Oil,Total Primary Energy,80.39
Nat. Gas,Total Primary Energy,52.00
Coal,Total Primary Energy,8.45
Peat,Total Primary Energy,2.59
Non-Renewable Wastes,Total Primary Energy,1.73
Wind,Total Primary Energy,11.21
Hydro,Total Primary Energy,0.70
Biomass & Other Renewables,Total Primary Energy,9.76
Electricity net imports,Total Primary Energy,0.25
Total Primary Energy,Transformation & dist. loss,28.05
Total Primary Energy,Total Final Energy,140.26
Transformation & dist. loss,Other energy sector own use/Loss,0.73
Transformation & dist. loss,Oil refining own use/loss,1.38
Transformation & dist. loss,Electricity transformation & distribution loss,25.94
Total Final Energy,Agriculture & Fisheries,3.72
Total Final Energy,Commercial/Public,21.71
Total Final Energy,Industry,24.90
Total Final Energy,Residential,31.50
Total Final Energy,Transport,58.44
Source: SEAI

2022 Highlights

Supply and demand

  • Ireland imported 81.6% of its total primary energy requirement.
  • 85.8% of Ireland’s primary energy requirement came from fossil fuel.
  • Ireland’s total energy demand was 4.7% higher than in 2021.


  • Energy-related emissions were 1.7% lower.
  • 2022 had the lowest energy-related emissions of any year in the last quarter century, except 2020 with its particularly strong COVID-impacts.
  • Energy-related emissions were down from heat (-1.0 MtCO2) and electricity generation (-0.2 MtCO2), but up from transport (+0.7 MtCO2).
  • 35.6% of energy-related emissions came from heat, 34.3% came from transport, and 30.1% came from electricity generation.


  • Energy demand for transport was 19.9% higher than in 2021, as travel patterns continued to rebound to pre-COVID levels.
  • Total transport energy demand has rebounded to 95% of pre-COVID 2019-levels.
  • 93.9% of road transport energy demand came from fossil fuels.


  • Demand for electricity was 2.5% higher than in 2021, consistent with the annual growth of recent years.
  • The carbon intensity of Ireland’s electricity was 332 gCO2/kWh.
  • 49.2% of the electricity indigenously generated in Ireland came from gas.
  • 38.9% of electricity generated in Ireland came from renewables.
  • Practically all new electricity demand in the last decade has come from the commercial services sector.
  • Electricity demand in the commercial services sector has increased by 61.5% since 2012, while the electricity demand in all other sectors has increased by just 8.0%.
  • Electricity demand in the information & communication sub-sector has increased by 562% since 2012.
  • In 2022, 82% of all information & communication electricity demand came from data centres.


  • Total heat demand was 7.3% lower than in 2021, but that reduction was not evenly distributed across all sectors of the economy.
  • Heat demand in the residential sector was 13.8% lower than in 2022, driven by a combination of weather effects, return-to-office trend, and demand reductions due to high energy prices.

2023 Highlights

Using early provisional data from January to September 2023, SEAI can make best estimate extrapolations for energy demand and emissions to the end of 2023. These best estimates are leading indicators for 2023 and are not definitive results.



  • Diesel demand may be 1.3% higher than in 2022 and reach 98.3% of the pre-COVID demand observed in 2019.
  • Petrol demand may be 7.4% higher than in 2022 and reach 96.5% of the pre-COVID demand observed in 2019.
  • Transport emissions may be 11.8 MtCO2e, up slightly on 2022 emissions.



  • In the first 9 months of 2023, Ireland imported 9.1% of its electricity supply, up from 1.1% in 2022.
  • The increased use of imported electricity has significantly reduced Ireland’s electricity emissions.
  • Electricity emissions may be 7.3 MtCO2e, down significantly on 2022 emissions.
  • The carbon intensity of electricity may be 259 gCO2/kWh, down significantly on the 2022 value.
  • Electricity generation from utility-scale ‘solar farms’ may reach 0.4 TWh, approximately twice that of rooftop solar
energy in ireland 2023 front cover

Energy in Ireland Report

The full report presents the latest national data and trends on energy efficiency and renewable energy in Ireland. It also looks at how these energy trends relate to Government and EU renewable energy targets.

Download the report

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