Understanding the factors that affect energy prices is important for Ireland. It helps businesses, householders and policymakers to respond appropriately.

Ireland has committed to developing metrics of energy cost competitiveness as outlined in the Government's White Paper on Ireland's Transition to a Low Carbon Energy Future 2015-2030. We have developed average electricity and natural gas prices for business and households. These are based on the EU Electricity and Gas Price Regulation statistics.

The graphs below show the average natural gas and electricity prices to business and households across all consumption bands in the Euro Area and the EU-27. They also show the weighted average across all bands in Ireland. The weightings for the Euro Area and the EU-27 are based on band volumes in a majority of the countries last reported in 2014. These different averages are not directly comparable but it is thought that, the Euro Area and the EU-27 weighted data are more appropriate than using a simple average.

 

Average electricity price to business

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Average electricity price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27
2007S2,12.50217906,9.38,9.06
2008S1,12.71,10.61,10.19
2008S2,14.18,11,10.6
2009S1,12.31,11.51,10.91
2009S2,11.37,11.13,10.66
2010S1,10.61,11.28,10.83
2010S2,10.66,11.45,11
2011S1,10.9,12.04,11.53
2011S2,12.01,12.34,11.67
2012S1,13.1,12.67,11.98
2012S2,13.76,12.9,12.17
2013S1,13.88,13.35,12.52
2013S2,13.83,13.39,12.48
2014S1,13.89,13.79,12.7
2014S2,13.6,13.57,12.49
2015S1,14,13.51,12.42
2015S2,13.58,13.25,12.2
2016S1,12.97,12.92,11.85
2016S2,12.53,12.72,11.72
2017S1,12.37,13.06,11.97
2017S2,12.61,12.71,11.71
2018S1,13.39,12.75,11.75
2018S2,13.71,12.84,11.89
2019S1,13.44,13.73,12.71
2019S2,13.1,13.73,12.6
2020S1,13.43,14.15,13.05
2020S2,13.43,14.02,12.95
2021S1,15.3,14.49,13.36
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The weighted* average price of electricity to business consumers in Ireland has been above the European average since the second half of 2011 and has fluctuated above and below the Euro Area since the end of 2016. The latest data available, for the January to June 2021 period, show the weighted average price in Ireland grew by 13.9% and was 14.5% and 5.6% above the EU and Euro Area average respectively..

Average gas price to business

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Average gas price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27
S2 2007,,3.32,3.17
S1 2008,3.74,3.66,3.52
S2 2008,4.12,4.2,4.04
S1 2009,3.73,3.91,3.71
S2 2009,3.04,3.35,3.22
S1 2010,2.91,3.36,3.25
S2 2010,3.35,3.55,3.45
S1 2011,3.5,3.67,3.55
S2 2011,3.53,3.88,3.75
S1 2012,3.74,4.08,3.93
S2 2012,4.05,4.12,4
S1 2013,4.16,4.35,4.18
S2 2013,4.37,4.27,4.12
2014S1,4.07,4.13,3.97
2014S2,4.01,3.95,3.8
2015S1,3.85,3.86,3.72
2015S2,3.68,3.68,3.54
2016S1,3.36,3.36,3.21
2016S2,3.48,3.27,3.12
2017S1,3.29,3.22,3.07
2017S2,3.32,3.16,3.02
2018S1,3.37,3.3,3.16
2018S2,3.82,3.46,3.32
2019S1,3.45,3.51,3.38
2019S2,3.32,3.35,3.21
2020S1,3.02,3.25,3.1
2020S2,3.03,3.13,2.96
2021S1,3.18,3.32,3.15
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

Since 2012, the weighted average price of natural gas to business consumers in Ireland has been above the EU average and fluctuated around the Euro Area average. In the first half of 2020 it fell below the EU average. The latest data available, for the January to June 2021 period, show a growth of 4.9% and it was 0.8% above the EU average and 4.4% below the Euro Area average.

Average electricity price to households

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Average electricity price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27
S2 2007,18.21,16.03,15.67
S1 2008,16.6,16.67,16.33
S2 2008,19.34,17.48,17.11
S1 2009,19.31,17.87,17.17
S2 2009,17.72,18,17.38
S1 2010,17.05,18.28,17.79
S2 2010,17.88,18.73,18.26
S1 2011,17.23,19.5,19.03
S2 2011,19.89,20,19.36
S1 2012,20.4,20.23,19.57
S2 2012,21.84,21.14,20.42
S1 2013,21.64,21.71,20.88
S2 2013,23.11,22.06,21.09
2014S1,22.97,22.23,21.07
2014S2,24.38,22.71,21.41
2015S1,23,22.72,21.4
2015S2,23.6,22.84,21.51
2016S1,22.09,22.33,21.08
2016S2,22.64,22.46,21.25
2017S1,21.65,22.6,21.31
2017S2,22.94,22.51,21.31
2018S1,21.84,22.67,21.44
2018S2,24.36,23.3,22.03
2019S1,22.98,23.69,22.38
2019S2,24.56,23.45,22.22
2020S1,23.05,23.39,22.05
2020S2,24.95,23.33,21.95
2021S1,23.96,23.66,22.36
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The weighted average price of electricity to household consumers was above the EU average since S2 2007 with the exception of S1 of 2010 and 2011. Since S1 2016 it has fluctuated above and below the Euro Area average. The weighted average price of electricity to households fell by 4.0% in the first half of 2021 and was 3.9% higher compared with 12 months previously.

Average gas price to households

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Average gas price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27
S2 2007,,6.09,5.79
S1 2008,5.45,6.23,5.95
S2 2008,6.51,7.15,6.82
S1 2009,6.44,6.8,6.46
S2 2009,5.51,5.98,5.76
S1 2010,4.97,5.94,5.77
S2 2010,5.28,6.62,6.39
S1 2011,5.1,6.45,6.23
S2 2011,6.2,7.4,7.07
S1 2012,6.15,7.06,6.74
S2 2012,6.75,7.97,7.59
S1 2013,6.55,7.46,7.1
S2 2013,7.28,8.1,7.66
2014S1,6.84,7.49,7.06
2014S2,7.53,8.14,7.62
2015S1,6.77,7.3,6.91
2015S2,7.33,7.93,7.47
2016S1,6.56,7.02,6.62
2016S2,6.86,7.41,6.97
2017S1,6.37,6.72,6.35
2017S2,6.57,7.45,6.99
2018S1,6.36,6.84,6.47
2018S2,7.7,7.84,7.34
2019S1,6.83,7.34,6.91
2019S2,7.68,7.86,7.37
2020S1,6.73,7.03,6.61
2020S2,7.07,7.67,7.15
2021S1,6.23,6.96,6.53
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The weighted average price of natural gas to household consumers in Ireland was below the Euro Area since 2007 and below the EU until the second half of 2018. In the current semester it was below both the EU and Euro Area averages. The weighted average price of natural gas to households in Ireland decreased by 11.9% in the first half of 2021 and was 7.4% lower compared with 12 months previously.

Household natural gas prices tend to be higher over the summer and lower over winter. Natural gas prices can be broken down into the charge for quantity of gas used and fixed charges such as network costs. The network costs are applied evenly over the full year. This means that in summer the cost per unit of gas used is higher, as the fixed charge is the same but there are far fewer units of gas used.

 

Fuel price comparison

SEAI collects data on fuel prices each quarter to businesses and households. This is intended to help consumers to make reasonable comparisons between the cost performance of various fuels used in the more common types of heating system in Ireland.  Tables are published for both commercial and domestic consumers. These tables are available for download at the link below. The graphs below show the data for both commercial and household fuel prices.

Download commercial and household fuel price comparison sheets

Commercial fuel price comparison

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Commercial fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Gas oil),Gas (average commercial rate),Electricity (average commercial rate),Wood (bulk pellets)
2008Q1,7.88,4.2,14.31,3.98
2008Q2,8.16,4.2,14.31,4.06
2008Q3,9.92,4.59,16.04,3.79
2008Q4,8.69,4.59,16.04,3.64
2009Q1,5.48,4.15,13.86,3.64
2009Q2,5.85,4.15,13.86,3.85
2009Q3,6.33,3.39,12.81,3.7
2009Q4,6.27,3.39,12.81,3.58
2010Q1,6.92,3.24,11.91,3.58
2010Q2,7.41,3.24,11.91,4.03
2010Q3,8.17,3.7,11.94,3.95
2010Q4,8.06,3.7,11.94,3.95
2011Q1,8.48,3.86,12.12,3.95
2011Q2,8.95,3.86,12.12,4.09
2011Q3,9.16,3.87,13.44,4.13
2011Q4,9.58,3.87,13.44,4.4
2012Q1,9.96,5,14.75,4.4
2012Q2,10.42,5,14.75,4.4
2012Q3,10.45,4.44,15.38,4.58
2012Q4,10.68,4.44,15.38,4.62
2013Q1,10.17,4.57,15.55,4.84
2013Q2,10.3,4.57,15.55,4.8
2013Q3,9.98,4.82,15.48,4.92
2013Q4,10.14,4.82,15.48,5.58
2014Q1,10.2,4.47,15.58,5.6
2014Q2,9.89,4.47,15.58,5.6
2014Q3,10.04,4.4,15.26,5.6
2014Q4,9.73,4.4,15.26,5.78
2015Q1,7.84,4.3,15.72,5.78
2015Q2,8.21,4.3,15.72,5.69
2015Q3,8.5,4.08,15.26,5.69
2015Q4,7.66,4.08,15.26,5.69
2016Q1,6.77,3.71,14.58,5.69
2016Q2,6.83,3.71,14.58,5.69
2016Q3,7.23,3.82,14.12,5.69
2016Q4,7.52,3.82,14.12,5.69
2017Q1,8.29,3.65,13.87,5.69
2017Q2,7.86,3.65,13.87,5.69
2017Q3,7.49,3.69,14.19,5.69
2017Q4,8.08,3.69,14.19,5.63
2018Q1,8.41,3.73,15.04,5.66
2018Q2,8.45,3.73,15.04,5.79
2018Q3,9.16,4.23,15.41,5.57
2018Q4,9.45,4.23,15.41,5.57
2019Q1,8.19,3.83,15.1,5.57
2019Q2,8.57,3.83,15.1,5.3
2019Q3,8.75,3.67,14.72,5.3
2019Q4,8.88,3.67,14.72,5.3
2020Q1,8.92,3.36,15.08,5.42
2020Q2,7.19,3.36,15.08,5.4
2020Q3,7.18,3.35,15.78,5.52
2020Q4,6.91,3.35,15.78,5.52
2021Q1,7.22,3.49,17.16,5.52
2021Q2,8.08,3.49,17.16,5.52
2021Q3,8.87,,,5.44
2021Q4,9.5,,,5.5
2022Q1,9.83,,,5.73
Source: SEAI

For both commercial and household customers, electricity is the most expensive fuel, followed by oil. For commercial users, electricity and oil prices increased in 2021, while wood pellet and natural gas prices remained flat.

Household fuel price comparison

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Household fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Kerosene),Gas (average domestic rate),Electricity (average domestic rate),Wood (Bagged pellets)
2008Q1,7.07,5.45,16.6,6.64
2008Q2,7.49,5.45,16.6,6.59
2008Q3,10.17,6.51,19.34,6.69
2008Q4,8.78,6.51,19.34,6.69
2009Q1,5.52,6.44,19.31,6.7
2009Q2,5.85,6.44,19.31,7.15
2009Q3,6.63,5.51,17.72,7.2
2009Q4,6.07,5.51,17.72,6.72
2010Q1,6.73,4.97,17.05,6.76
2010Q2,7.3,4.97,17.05,6.71
2010Q3,8.46,5.28,17.88,6.83
2010Q4,8.03,5.28,17.88,6.68
2011Q1,8.33,5.1,17.23,6.67
2011Q2,9.73,5.1,17.23,6.63
2011Q3,9.12,6.2,19.89,6.47
2011Q4,9.44,6.2,19.89,6.67
2012Q1,9.75,6.15,20.4,6.61
2012Q2,10.32,6.15,20.4,6.71
2012Q3,9.69,6.75,21.84,6.62
2012Q4,10.5,6.75,21.84,6.61
2013Q1,10.09,6.55,21.64,6.63
2013Q2,10.13,6.55,21.64,6.77
2013Q3,9.69,7.28,23.11,6.69
2013Q4,9.81,7.28,23.11,6.95
2014Q1,9.92,6.84,22.97,6.9
2014Q2,9.53,6.84,22.97,6.9
2014Q3,9.66,7.53,24.38,6.9
2014Q4,9.49,7.53,24.38,7.1
2015Q1,7.55,6.77,23,7.14
2015Q2,7.86,6.77,23,7.26
2015Q3,8,7.33,23.6,7.21
2015Q4,7.12,7.33,23.6,7.48
2016Q1,6.33,6.56,22.09,7.43
2016Q2,6.37,6.56,22.09,7.4
2016Q3,6.86,6.86,22.64,7.45
2016Q4,7,6.86,22.64,7.36
2017Q1,7.81,6.37,21.65,7.43
2017Q2,7.46,6.37,21.65,7.43
2017Q3,7.06,6.57,22.94,7.4
2017Q4,7.61,6.57,22.94,7.17
2018Q1,7.98,6.36,21.84,7.14
2018Q2,8.01,6.36,21.84,7.86
2018Q3,8.69,7.7,24.36,7.45
2018Q4,9.18,7.7,24.36,7.45
2019Q1,7.61,6.83,22.98,7.45
2019Q2,8.24,6.83,22.98,7.33
2019Q3,8.44,7.68,24.56,7.33
2019Q4,7.41,7.68,24.56,7.33
2020Q1,8.6,6.73,23.05,7.33
2020Q2,5.86,6.73,23.05,7.53
2020Q3,6.15,7.07,24.95,7.53
2020Q4,5.92,7.07,24.95,7.53
2021Q1,6.76,6.23,23.96,7.21
2021Q2,7.57,6.23,23.96,7.21
2021Q3,8.37,,,7.16
2021Q4,9.17,,,7.16
2022Q1,9.82,,,7.16
Source: SEAI

The price of oil dropped in 2020 but recovered to 9.2 €cent/kWh by the end of 2021.