Understanding the factors that affect energy prices is important for Ireland. It helps businesses, householders and policymakers to respond appropriately.
Ireland has committed to developing metrics of energy cost competitiveness as outlined in the Government's White Paper on Ireland's Transition to a Low Carbon Energy Future 2015-2030. We have developed average electricity and gas prices for business and households. These are based on the EU Electricity and Gas Price Regulation statistics.
The graphs below show the average gas and electricity prices to business and households across all consumption bands in the Euro Area and the EU-28. They also show the weighted average across all bands in Ireland. The weightings for the Euro Area and the EU-28 are based on band volumes in a majority of the countries last reported in 2014. These different averages are not directly comparable but it is thought that, the Euro Area and the EU-28 weighted data are more appropriate than using a simple average.
Average electricity price to business
Average electricity price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27 2007S2,12.50217906,9.38,9.06 2008S1,12.71,10.61,10.19 2008S2,14.18,11,10.6 2009S1,12.31,11.51,10.91 2009S2,11.37,11.13,10.66 2010S1,10.61,11.28,10.83 2010S2,10.66,11.45,11 2011S1,10.9,12.04,11.53 2011S2,12.01,12.34,11.67 2012S1,13.1,12.67,11.98 2012S2,13.76,12.9,12.17 2013S1,13.88,13.35,12.52 2013S2,13.83,13.39,12.48 2014S1,13.89,13.79,12.7 2014S2,13.6,13.57,12.49 2015S1,14,13.51,12.42 2015S2,13.58,13.25,12.2 2016S1,12.97,12.92,11.85 2016S2,12.53,12.72,11.72 2017S1,12.37,13.06,11.97 2017S2,12.61,12.71,11.71 2018S1,13.39,12.75,11.75 2018S2,13.71,12.84,11.89 2019S1,13.44,13.73,12.71 2019S2,13.1,13.73,12.6 2020S1,13.41,14.15,13.05 2020S2,14,14.03,12.96
The price of electricity to business consumers in Ireland has been above the EU and Euro Area since the second half of 2011. In the second half of 2019 the weighted* average price in Ireland fell by 1.4% and it was 10% and 5% above the EU and Euro Area respectively.
Average gas price to business
Average gas price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27 S2 2007,,3.32,3.17 S1 2008,3.74,3.66,3.52 S2 2008,4.12,4.2,4.04 S1 2009,3.73,3.91,3.71 S2 2009,3.04,3.35,3.22 S1 2010,2.91,3.36,3.25 S2 2010,3.35,3.55,3.45 S1 2011,3.5,3.67,3.55 S2 2011,3.53,3.88,3.75 S1 2012,3.74,4.08,3.93 S2 2012,4.05,4.12,4 S1 2013,4.16,4.35,4.18 S2 2013,4.37,4.27,4.12 2014S1,4.07,4.13,3.97 2014S2,4.01,3.95,3.8 2015S1,3.85,3.86,3.72 2015S2,3.68,3.68,3.54 2016S1,3.36,3.36,3.21 2016S2,3.48,3.27,3.12 2017S1,3.29,3.22,3.07 2017S2,3.32,3.16,3.02 2018S1,3.37,3.3,3.16 2018S2,3.82,3.46,3.32 2019S1,3.45,3.51,3.38 2019S2,3.32,3.35,3.21 2020S1,3.03,3.25,3.09 2020S2,3.03,3.13,2.96
The price of gas to business consumers in Ireland was below the Euro Area between S2 2009 and S1 2013. Since then it has been above the EU average and from S1 2014 until S1 2016 it was below the Euro Area average. In the second half of 2019 it was 5% above the EU and 1% below the Euro Area average. In the second semester of 2019 average gas prices to business in Ireland fell by 3.9%.
Average electricity price to households
Average electricity price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27 S2 2007,18.21,16.03,15.67 S1 2008,16.6,16.67,16.33 S2 2008,19.34,17.48,17.11 S1 2009,19.31,17.87,17.17 S2 2009,17.72,18,17.38 S1 2010,17.05,18.28,17.79 S2 2010,17.88,18.73,18.26 S1 2011,17.23,19.5,19.03 S2 2011,19.89,20,19.36 S1 2012,20.4,20.23,19.57 S2 2012,21.84,21.14,20.42 S1 2013,21.64,21.71,20.88 S2 2013,23.11,22.06,21.09 2014S1,22.97,22.23,21.07 2014S2,24.38,22.71,21.41 2015S1,23,22.72,21.4 2015S2,23.6,22.84,21.51 2016S1,22.09,22.33,21.08 2016S2,22.64,22.46,21.25 2017S1,21.65,22.6,21.31 2017S2,22.94,22.51,21.31 2018S1,21.84,22.67,21.44 2018S2,24.36,23.3,22.03 2019S1,22.98,23.69,22.38 2019S2,24.56,23.45,22.22 2020S1,23.05,23.39,22.05 2020S2,24.95,23.33,21.95
The price of electricity to household consumers in Ireland was above the EU over the period with the exception of S1 2011. It fluctuated above and below the Euro Area over the period with it being roughly half the semesters both above and below. In the second half of 2019 it was 11% above the EU average and 5% above the Euro Area. In the second semester of 2019 household electricity prices in Ireland grew by 6.9%.
Average gas price to households
Average gas price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-27 S2 2007,,6.09,5.79 S1 2008,5.45,6.23,5.95 S2 2008,6.51,7.15,6.82 S1 2009,6.44,6.8,6.46 S2 2009,5.51,5.98,5.76 S1 2010,4.97,5.94,5.77 S2 2010,5.28,6.62,6.39 S1 2011,5.1,6.45,6.23 S2 2011,6.2,7.4,7.07 S1 2012,6.15,7.06,6.74 S2 2012,6.75,7.97,7.59 S1 2013,6.55,7.46,7.1 S2 2013,7.28,8.1,7.66 2014S1,6.84,7.49,7.06 2014S2,7.53,8.14,7.62 2015S1,6.77,7.3,6.91 2015S2,7.33,7.93,7.47 2016S1,6.56,7.02,6.62 2016S2,6.86,7.41,6.97 2017S1,6.37,6.72,6.35 2017S2,6.57,7.45,6.99 2018S1,6.36,6.84,6.47 2018S2,7.7,7.84,7.34 2019S1,6.83,7.34,6.91 2019S2,7.68,7.86,7.37 2020S1,6.73,7.03,6.61 2020S2,7.07,7.67,7.15
The price of gas to household consumers in Ireland was below the Euro Area over the whole period and below the EU average between S1 2010 and S1 2013. In second half of 2019 it was 12% above the EU and 2% below the Euro Area. Household gas prices in Ireland grew by 12% in the second half of 2019.
Household gas prices tend to be higher over the summer and lower over winter. Gas prices can be broken down into the charge for quantity of gas used and fixed charges such as network costs. The network costs are applied evenly over the full year. This means that in summer the cost per unit of gas used is higher, as the fixed charge is the same but there are far fewer units of gas used.
Fuel price comparison
SEAI collects data on fuel prices each quarter to businesses and households. This is intended to help consumers to make reasonable comparisons between the cost performance of various fuels used in the more common types of heating system in Ireland. Tables are published for both commercial and domestic consumers. These tables are available for download at the link below. The graphs below show the data for both commercial and household fuel prices.Download commercial and household fuel price comparison sheets
Commercial fuel price comparison
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Commercial fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Gas oil),Gas (average commercial rate),Electricity (average commercial rate),Wood (bulk pellets) 2008Q1,7.88,4.2,14.31,3.98 2008Q2,8.16,4.2,14.31,4.06 2008Q3,9.92,4.59,16.04,3.79 2008Q4,8.69,4.59,16.04,3.64 2009Q1,5.48,4.15,13.86,3.64 2009Q2,5.85,4.15,13.86,3.85 2009Q3,6.33,3.39,12.81,3.7 2009Q4,6.27,3.39,12.81,3.58 2010Q1,6.92,3.24,11.91,3.58 2010Q2,7.41,3.24,11.91,4.03 2010Q3,8.17,3.7,11.94,3.95 2010Q4,8.06,3.7,11.94,3.95 2011Q1,8.48,3.86,12.12,3.95 2011Q2,8.95,3.86,12.12,4.09 2011Q3,9.16,3.87,13.44,4.13 2011Q4,9.58,3.87,13.44,4.4 2012Q1,9.96,5,14.75,4.4 2012Q2,10.42,5,14.75,4.4 2012Q3,10.45,4.44,15.38,4.58 2012Q4,10.68,4.44,15.38,4.62 2013Q1,10.17,4.57,15.55,4.84 2013Q2,10.3,4.57,15.55,4.8 2013Q3,9.98,4.82,15.48,4.92 2013Q4,10.14,4.82,15.48,5.58 2014Q1,10.2,4.47,15.58,5.6 2014Q2,9.89,4.47,15.58,5.6 2014Q3,10.04,4.4,15.26,5.6 2014Q4,9.73,4.4,15.26,5.78 2015Q1,7.84,4.3,15.72,5.78 2015Q2,8.21,4.3,15.72,5.69 2015Q3,8.5,4.08,15.26,5.69 2015Q4,7.66,4.08,15.26,5.69 2016Q1,6.77,3.71,14.58,5.69 2016Q2,6.83,3.71,14.58,5.69 2016Q3,7.23,3.82,14.12,5.69 2016Q4,7.52,3.82,14.12,5.69 2017Q1,8.29,3.65,13.87,5.69 2017Q2,7.86,3.65,13.87,5.69 2017Q3,7.49,3.69,14.19,5.69 2017Q4,8.08,3.69,14.19,5.63 2018Q1,8.41,3.73,15.04,5.66 2018Q2,8.45,3.73,15.04,5.79 2018Q3,9.16,4.23,15.41,5.57 2018Q4,9.45,4.23,15.41,5.57 2019Q1,8.19,3.83,15.1,5.57 2019Q2,8.57,3.83,15.1,5.3 2019Q3,8.75,3.67,14.72,5.3 2019Q4,8.88,3.67,14.72,5.3 2020Q1,8.92,3.36,15.08,5.42 2020Q2,7.19,3.36,15.08,5.4 2020Q3,7.18,3.35,15.75,5.52 2020Q4,6.91,3.35,15.75,5.52 2021Q1,7.22,,,5.52 2021Q2,8.08,,,5.52
For both commercial and household customers, electricity is the most expensive fuel, followed by oil. For commercial users, electricity and oil prices increased in 2018, while wood pellet and gas prices remained flat.
Household fuel price comparison
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Household fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Kerosene),Gas (average domestic rate),Electricity (average domestic rate),Wood (Bagged pellets) 2008Q1,7.07,5.45,16.6,6.64 2008Q2,7.49,5.45,16.6,6.59 2008Q3,10.17,6.51,19.34,6.69 2008Q4,8.78,6.51,19.34,6.69 2009Q1,5.52,6.44,19.31,6.7 2009Q2,5.85,6.44,19.31,7.15 2009Q3,6.63,5.51,17.72,7.2 2009Q4,6.07,5.51,17.72,6.72 2010Q1,6.73,4.97,17.05,6.76 2010Q2,7.3,4.97,17.05,6.71 2010Q3,8.46,5.28,17.88,6.83 2010Q4,8.03,5.28,17.88,6.68 2011Q1,8.33,5.1,17.23,6.67 2011Q2,9.73,5.1,17.23,6.63 2011Q3,9.12,6.2,19.89,6.47 2011Q4,9.44,6.2,19.89,6.67 2012Q1,9.75,6.15,20.4,6.61 2012Q2,10.32,6.15,20.4,6.71 2012Q3,9.69,6.75,21.84,6.62 2012Q4,10.5,6.75,21.84,6.61 2013Q1,10.09,6.55,21.64,6.63 2013Q2,10.13,6.55,21.64,6.77 2013Q3,9.69,7.28,23.11,6.69 2013Q4,9.81,7.28,23.11,6.95 2014Q1,9.92,6.84,22.97,6.9 2014Q2,9.53,6.84,22.97,6.9 2014Q3,9.66,7.53,24.38,6.9 2014Q4,9.49,7.53,24.38,7.1 2015Q1,7.55,6.77,23,7.14 2015Q2,7.86,6.77,23,7.26 2015Q3,8,7.33,23.6,7.21 2015Q4,7.12,7.33,23.6,7.48 2016Q1,6.33,6.56,22.09,7.43 2016Q2,6.37,6.56,22.09,7.4 2016Q3,6.86,6.86,22.64,7.45 2016Q4,7,6.86,22.64,7.36 2017Q1,7.81,6.37,21.65,7.43 2017Q2,7.46,6.37,21.65,7.43 2017Q3,7.06,6.57,22.94,7.4 2017Q4,7.61,6.57,22.94,7.17 2018Q1,7.98,6.36,21.84,7.14 2018Q2,8.01,6.36,21.84,7.86 2018Q3,8.69,7.7,24.36,7.45 2018Q4,9.18,7.7,24.36,7.45 2019Q1,7.61,6.83,22.98,7.45 2019Q2,8.24,6.83,22.98,7.33 2019Q3,8.44,7.68,24.56,7.33 2019Q4,7.41,7.68,24.56,7.33 2020Q1,8.6,6.73,23.05,7.33 2020Q2,5.86,6.73,23.05,7.53 2020Q3,6.15,7.07,24.95,7.53 2020Q4,5.92,7.07,24.95,7.53 2021Q1,6.76,,,7.21 2021Q2,7.57,,,7.21
The period 2011 to 2014 saw record high energy prices for households for electricity, gas and oil:
- Oil prices peaked in 2012 at 10.4 €cent/kWh – 147% above the 2000-2005 average
- Gas peaked in 2014 at 7.5 €cent/kWh – 135% above the 2000-2005 average
- Electricity price peaked in 2014 at 24.4 €cent/kWh – 101% above the 2000-2005 average
The price of oil dropped in 2015 but recovered to 9.2 €cent/kWh by the end of 2018.