Understanding the factors that affect energy prices is important for Ireland. It helps businesses, householders and policymakers to respond appropriately.

Ireland has committed to developing metrics of energy cost competitiveness as outlined in the Government's White Paper on Ireland's Transition to a Low Carbon Energy Future 2015-2030. We have developed average electricity and gas prices for business and households. These are based on the EU Electricity and Gas Price Regulation statistics.

The graphs below show the average gas and electricity prices to business across all consumption bands in the Euro Area and the EU-28. They also show the weighted average across all bands in Ireland. Note that the weighted average is not fully comparable with the normal average.

Average electricity price to business

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Average electricity price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-28
2008S1,12.71,10.3,10.02
2008S2,14.18,10.7,10.51
2009S1,12.31,11.13,10.75
2009S2,11.37,10.8,10.47
2010S1,10.61,10.89,10.58
2010S2,10.66,11.14,10.8
2011S1,10.9,11.62,11.18
2011S2,12.01,11.94,11.38
2012S1,13.1,12.16,11.68
2012S2,13.76,12.43,11.96
2013S1,13.88,12.84,12.2
2013S2,13.83,12.87,12.21
2014S1,13.89,13.14,12.4
2014S2,13.6,12.99,12.32
2015S1,14,12.9,12.38
2015S2,13.58,12.68,12.22
2016S1,12.97,12.21,11.68
2016S2,12.53,12.12,11.52
2017S1,12.37,12.21,11.64
2017S2,12.61,11.84,11.37
2018S1,13.39,11.91,11.51
2018S2,13.71,12.06,11.74
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The price of electricity to business consumers in Ireland has been above the EU and Euro Area since 2011. In the first half of 2018 the weighted average price in Ireland increased by 6.2% and it was 16% and 13% above the EU and Euro Area respectively.

Average gas price to business

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Average gas price to business (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-28
S1 2008,3.74,3.67,3.49
S2 2008,4.12,4.21,4
S1 2009,3.73,3.91,3.68
S2 2009,3.04,3.38,3.19
S1 2010,2.91,3.37,3.22
S2 2010,3.35,3.59,3.43
S1 2011,3.5,3.71,3.54
S2 2011,3.53,3.94,3.78
S1 2012,3.74,4.14,3.99
S2 2012,4.05,4.2,4.09
S1 2013,4.16,4.38,4.2
S2 2013,4.37,4.31,4.17
2014S1,4.07,4.16,4.03
2014S2,4.01,4.02,3.93
2015S1,3.85,3.9,3.82
2015S2,3.68,3.73,3.68
2016S1,3.36,3.38,3.28
2016S2,3.48,3.33,3.19
2017S1,3.29,3.28,3.14
2017S2,3.32,3.25,3.11
2018S1,3.37,3.37,3.23
2018S2,3.82,3.57,3.45
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The price of gas to business consumers in Ireland was below both the EU and Euro Area between S2 2009 and S1 2013. Since then Irish gas prices have been close to the EU and Euro area averages. In the second semester of 2018 average gas prices to business in Ireland increased by 13%.

Average electricity price to households

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Average electricity price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-28
S1 2008,16.6,18.29,17.31
S2 2008,19.34,19.13,18.09
S1 2009,19.31,19.47,17.98
S2 2009,17.72,19.65,18.19
S1 2010,17.05,20.04,18.56
S2 2010,17.88,20.42,19
S1 2011,17.23,21.18,19.64
S2 2011,19.89,21.66,20.12
S1 2012,20.4,21.82,20.38
S2 2012,21.84,22.77,21.34
S1 2013,21.64,23.49,21.78
S2 2013,23.11,23.79,22.04
2014S1,22.97,24.15,22.33
2014S2,24.38,24.6,22.74
2015S1,23,24.79,22.99
2015S2,23.6,24.89,23.19
2016S1,22.09,24.55,22.65
2016S2,22.64,24.68,22.77
2017S1,21.65,25.21,22.96
2017S2,22.94,24.9,22.93
2018S1,21.84,25.22,23.22
2018S2,24.36,26.12,24.06
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The price of electricity to household consumers in Ireland was below both the EU and Euro Area between 2016 semester 1 and 2018 semester 1. In the second semester of 2018 household electricity prices in Ireland increased by 12%.

Average gas price to households

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Average gas price to households (Euro cent/kWh),Ireland,Euro Area,EU-28
S1 2008,5.45,6.75,5.83
S2 2008,6.51,7.77,6.69
S1 2009,6.44,7.35,6.32
S2 2009,5.51,6.7,5.89
S1 2010,4.97,6.53,5.77
S2 2010,5.28,7.4,6.38
S1 2011,5.1,7.14,6.27
S2 2011,6.2,8.18,7.18
S1 2012,6.15,7.73,6.85
S2 2012,6.75,8.76,7.72
S1 2013,6.55,8.17,7.21
S2 2013,7.28,8.92,7.88
2014S1,6.84,8.29,7.46
2014S2,7.53,9,8.12
2015S1,6.77,8.03,7.41
2015S2,7.33,8.8,8.05
2016S1,6.56,7.79,7.04
2016S2,6.86,8.32,7.34
2017S1,6.37,7.5,6.62
2017S2,6.57,8.39,7.28
2018S1,6.36,7.65,6.71
2018S2,7.7,8.87,7.73
Source: SEAI based on Eurostat data

The price of gas to household consumers in Ireland was below both the EU and Euro Area over the whole period. The only exception is S2 2009.

Household gas prices tend to be higher over the summer and lower over winter. Gas prices can be broken down into the charge for quantity of gas used and fixed charges such as network costs. The network costs are applied evenly over the full year. This means that in summer the cost per unit of gas used is higher, as the fixed charge is the same but there are far fewer units of gas used.

Household gas prices increased by 21% in the second semester of 2018.

Fuel price comparison

SEAI collects data on fuel prices each quarter to businesses and households. This is intended to help consumers to make reasonable comparisons between the cost performance of various fuels used in the more common types of heating system in Ireland.  Tables are published for both commercial and domestic consumers. These tables are available for download at the link below. The graphs below show the data for both commercial and household fuel prices.

Download commercial and household fuel price comparison sheets

Commercial fuel price comparison

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Commercial fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Gas oil),Gas (average commercial rate),Electricity (average commercial rate),Wood (bulk pellets)
2008Q1,7.88,4.2,14.31,3.98
2008Q2,8.16,4.2,14.31,4.06
2008Q3,9.92,4.59,16.04,3.79
2008Q4,8.69,4.59,16.04,3.64
2009Q1,5.48,4.15,13.86,3.64
2009Q2,5.85,4.15,13.86,3.85
2009Q3,6.33,3.39,12.81,3.7
2009Q4,6.27,3.39,12.81,3.58
2010Q1,6.92,3.24,11.91,3.58
2010Q2,7.41,3.24,11.91,4.03
2010Q3,8.17,3.7,11.94,3.95
2010Q4,8.06,3.7,11.94,3.95
2011Q1,8.48,3.86,12.12,3.95
2011Q2,8.95,3.86,12.12,4.09
2011Q3,9.16,3.87,13.44,4.13
2011Q4,9.58,3.87,13.44,4.4
2012Q1,9.96,5,14.75,4.4
2012Q2,10.42,5,14.75,4.4
2012Q3,10.45,4.44,15.38,4.58
2012Q4,10.68,4.44,15.38,4.62
2013Q1,10.17,4.57,15.55,4.84
2013Q2,10.3,4.57,15.55,4.8
2013Q3,9.98,4.82,15.48,4.92
2013Q4,10.14,4.82,15.48,5.58
2014Q1,10.2,4.47,15.58,5.6
2014Q2,9.89,4.47,15.58,5.6
2014Q3,10.04,4.4,15.26,5.6
2014Q4,9.73,4.4,15.26,5.78
2015Q1,7.84,4.3,15.72,5.78
2015Q2,8.21,4.3,15.72,5.69
2015Q3,8.5,4.08,15.26,5.69
2015Q4,7.66,4.08,15.26,5.69
2016Q1,6.77,3.71,14.58,5.69
2016Q2,6.83,3.71,14.58,5.69
2016Q3,7.23,3.82,14.12,5.69
2016Q4,7.52,3.82,14.12,5.69
2017Q1,8.29,3.65,13.87,5.69
2017Q2,7.86,3.65,13.87,5.69
2017Q3,7.49,3.66,14.19,5.69
2017Q4,8.08,3.66,14.19,5.63
2018Q1,8.41,3.73,15.04,5.66
2018Q2,8.45,3.73,15.04,5.79
2018Q3,9.16,4.23,15.41,5.57
2018Q4,9.45,4.23,15.41,5.57
Source: SEAI

For both commercial and houshold customers, electricity is the most expensive fuel, followed by oil. For commercial users, electricity and oil prices increased in 2018, while wood pellet and gas prices remained flat.

Household fuel price comparison

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Household fuel cost comparison (Euro cent/kWh),Oil (Kerosine),Gas (average domestic rate),Electricity (average domestic rate),Wood (Bagged pellets)
2008Q1,7.07,5.45,16.6,6.64
2008Q2,7.49,5.45,16.6,6.59
2008Q3,10.17,6.51,19.34,6.69
2008Q4,8.78,6.51,19.34,6.69
2009Q1,5.52,6.44,19.31,6.7
2009Q2,5.85,6.44,19.31,7.15
2009Q3,6.63,5.51,17.72,7.2
2009Q4,6.07,5.51,17.72,6.72
2010Q1,6.73,4.97,17.05,6.76
2010Q2,7.3,4.97,17.05,6.71
2010Q3,8.46,5.28,17.88,6.83
2010Q4,8.03,5.28,17.88,6.68
2011Q1,8.33,5.1,17.23,6.67
2011Q2,9.73,5.1,17.23,6.63
2011Q3,9.12,6.2,19.89,6.47
2011Q4,9.44,6.2,19.89,6.67
2012Q1,9.75,6.15,20.4,6.61
2012Q2,10.32,6.15,20.4,6.71
2012Q3,9.69,6.75,21.84,6.62
2012Q4,10.5,6.75,21.84,6.61
2013Q1,10.09,6.55,21.64,6.63
2013Q2,10.13,6.55,21.64,6.77
2013Q3,9.69,7.28,23.11,6.69
2013Q4,9.81,7.28,23.11,6.95
2014Q1,9.92,6.84,22.97,6.9
2014Q2,9.53,6.84,22.97,6.9
2014Q3,9.66,7.53,24.38,6.9
2014Q4,9.49,7.53,24.38,7.1
2015Q1,7.55,6.77,23,7.14
2015Q2,7.86,6.77,23,7.26
2015Q3,8,7.33,23.6,7.21
2015Q4,7.12,7.33,23.6,7.48
2016Q1,6.33,6.56,22.09,7.43
2016Q2,6.37,6.56,22.09,7.4
2016Q3,6.86,6.86,22.64,7.45
2016Q4,7,6.86,22.64,7.36
2017Q1,7.81,6.37,21.65,7.43
2017Q2,7.46,6.37,21.65,7.43
2017Q3,7.06,6.57,22.94,7.4
2017Q4,7.61,6.57,22.94,7.17
2018Q1,7.98,6.36,21.84,7.14
2018Q2,8.01,6.36,21.84,7.86
2018Q3,8.69,7.7,24.36,7.45
2018Q4,9.18,7.7,24.36,7.45
Source: SEAI

The period 2011 to 2014 saw record high energy prices for households for electricity, gas and oil:

  • Oil prices peaked in 2012 at 10.4 €cent/kWh – 147% above the 2000-2005 average
  • Gas peaked in 2014 at 7.5 €cent/kWh – 135% above the 2000-2005 average
  • Electricity price peaked in 2014 at 24.4 €cent/kWh – 101% above the 2000-2005 average

The price of oil dropped in 2015 but recovered to 9.2 €cent/kWh by the end of 2018.