See an overview of on energy use in Ireland broken down by fuel, sector and mode.

Annual energy flow

Natural Gas,TPER,4231
Other Renewables and Wastes,TPER,637
Transformation,Natural Gas Own Use/Loss,44
Transformation,Electricity Transformation and Distribution Losses,2496
Transformation,Oil Refining,73
TFC,Electricity Exports,61
TFC,Agriculture and Fisheries,226
Source: SEAI

This graph shows the energy balance for Ireland in 2016.

Primary energy

On the left are the primary energy inputs to the Irish energy system. Primary energy includes the raw fuels that are used for transformation processes such as electricity generation and oil refining. The sum of all primary energy is the Total Primary Energy Requirement (TPER). Fossil fuels accounted for 92% of all energy used in Ireland in 2016.

Demand for energy

On the right are the sources of demand for final energy. Final energy includes the energy used directly in the different sectors such as transport, residential and industry. Final energy does not include energy lost during transformation processes such as electricity generation. The sum of all final energy used in all sectors is known as Total Final Consumption (TFC). Transport has been by far the largest source of energy demand in Ireland since 2000.

Also on the right is the energy that is lost during transformation processes such as electricity generation and oil refining. The electricity system has become much more efficient since 2000 but is still less than 50% efficient. This means that more than half of all the energy used to generate electricity is lost before it gets to the final customer.

Primary energy by fuel

Wastes Non-Renewables67
Source: SEAI

TPER peaked in 2008 and declined between 2008 and 2014, due to the recession. Following the recovery in the economy, TPER returned to growth in 2015 and 2016.


Oil continues to be the dominant energy source and maintained a 48% share of TPER in 2016. Consumption of oil increased by 3.8% in 2016 but remained 24% lower than in 2005. Oil is mostly used for transport, followed by heating.

Natural gas

Natural gas is the next largest energy source and accounted for 29% of TPER in 2016. Most natural gas is used for generating electricity. It accounted for 49% of energy inputs to electricity generation in 2016.


Total renewable energy increased by just 0.3% during 2016. Hydro and wind decreased by 15.6% and 6.5% respectively as there was lower rainfall and less wind. Biomass use increased by 17.6% in 2016. Renewable energy accounted for 8.0% of TPER in 2016, down from 8.3% in 2015.

Final energy by sector

Agriculture and Fisheries226
Source: SEAI

This graph shows final energy split by sector. Transport is by far the largest sector, accounting for 43% of final energy demand in 2016. Transport was also the sector with the highest growth in energy use. It remains tightly linked to economic growth.

The next largest sources of energy demand are households and industry. They account for 23% and 21% of final energy use respectively in 2016.

Final energy by mode

Source: SEAI

We split energy use into three modes: electricity, transport and heat. If electricity provides transport or heat (electric cars or showers), it's counted as electricity. In this way the three modes are fully separate and add together to give the total energy use.

Transport is again the largest demand accounting for over 40%. Heat is the next largest at just under 40%. Electricity accounts for the remaining 20%. As it is final energy, this does not include the energy losses from electricity generation.